Get Project Updated
Get Market Information
Set Property Alerts
REAL ESTATE JARGONS
Disclaimer : The purpose of this REAL ESTATE JARGONS is to provide the visitors a general understanding on the various issues relating to House Property. The above REAL ESTATE JARGONS been prepared on the basis of advice received and may vary from person to person, based on facts of such case. Reasonable efforts have been taken in collecting, preparing and providing quality information, but we do not warrant or guarantee the accuracy, completeness, adequacy or currency of the information. The contents of the REAL ESTATE JARGONS are subject to changes / amendments made by the CBDT / Finance Ministry.
JARGONS : A
Abstract Of Title : The abstract of title includes transfers, grants, wills and conveyances, liens and encumbrances. It also provides any evidence or proof of satisfaction or other facts or information pertinent to a piece of property. All potential buyers of a property should request this to determine the status of the property.
Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM) : A mortgage with an interest rate that may change, usually in response to changes in the Treasury Bill rate or the prime rate. The purpose of the interest rate adjustment is primarily to bring the interest rate on the mortgage in line with market rates. The mortgage holder is protected by a maximum interest rate (called a ceiling), which might be reset annually. ARMs usually start with better rates than fixed rate mortgages, in order to compensate the borrower for the additional risk that future interest rate fluctuations will create.
Adverse Possession : Regulations surrounding adverse possession can vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and the definitions of the legal requirements are open to interpretation. Adverse possession is sometimes called "squatter's rights". This is because in some jurisdictions if a person occupies another person's land for a certain period of time (without paying rent) and the owner takes no legal action to remove that person, he or she can gain legal title to the property. In most cases, the squatter must occupy the land for an extended period of time, such as 15 to 20 years.
Affidavit Of Title : A document provided by the seller of a piece of property that explicitly states the status of potential legal issues involving the property or the seller. The affidavit is a sworn statement of fact. For example, someone looking to sell a piece of real estate would have to provide an affidavit of title indicating that the property is truly owned by the seller, that the property is not being sold to another party, that there are no liens against the property and that the seller is not in bankruptcy proceedings.
Amortization : The loan payment consists of a portion which will be applied to pay the accruing interest on a loan, with the remainder being applied to the principal. Over time, the interest portion decreases as the loan balance decreases, and the amount applied to principal increases so that the loan is paid off (amortized) in the specified time.
Annual Percentage Rate (APR) : This is not the note rate on your loan. It is a value created according to a government formula intended to reflect the true annual cost of borrowing, expressed as a percentage. It works sort of like this, but not exactly, so only use this as a guideline: deduct the closing costs from your loan amount, then using your actual loan payment, calculate what the interest rate would be on this amount instead of your actual loan amount. You will come up with a number close to the APR. Because you are using the same payment on a smaller amount, the APR is always higher than the actual note rate on your loan.
Apartment : An apartment (in American English) or flat (in British English) is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only part of a building.
Application Form : A form to use when making an application
Application Money :
Appreciation : The increase in the value of a property due to changes in market conditions, inflation, or other causes.
ARM Margin : A fixed percentage rate that is added to an index value to determine the fully indexed interest rate of an adjustable rate mortgage (ARM). The margin is constant throughout the life of the mortgage, while the index value is variable. For example, the index might be the prime rate, which varies according to market conditions, and the margin might be 2%. If the prime rate were 5% and the margin 2%, then the fully indexed interest rate would be 7%. If the prime rate rises to 6% (the margin remains constant), the fully indexed interest rate would be 8%.
Assessed Value : The valuation placed on property by a public tax assessor for purposes of taxation.
Assessment : The placing of a value on property for the purpose of taxation.
Assessor : A public official who establishes the value of a property for taxation purposes.
Asset : Items of value owned by an individual. Assets that can be quickly converted into cash are considered "liquid assets." These include bank accounts, stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and so on. Other assets include real estate, personal property, and debts owed to an individual by others
Attorney (Lawyer) Fees
JARGONS : B
Bedroom, Hall & Kitchen
Bigha A unit for measuring land. 1 Bigha = 20 Kottah
Blended Rate : An interest rate charged on a loan, which is in between a previous rate and the new rate. Blended rates are usually offered through the refinancing of previous loans, and charge a rate that is higher than the old loan's rate but lower than the rate on a new loan.
Broker : Broker has several meanings in different situations. Most Realtors are "agents" who work under a "broker." Some agents are brokers as well, either working form themselves or under another broker. In the mortgage industry, broker usually refers to a company or individual that does not lend the money for the loans themselves, but broker loans to larger lenders or investors.
Brokerage Commission : paid by the seller to a Real Estate Broker, to compensate the Broker(s) involved in the sale for their services in marketing the property, finding a buyer, and assisting in the negotiations. Brokerage commissions are usually computed as a percentage of the sale price, and are established in a listing agreement between the seller and the listing broker. The listing broker may offer Buyer Agents a portion of their commission as an incentive to find buyers for the property. Payment is required if real estate brokerage service was used. This is often one of the largest closing costs.
Brokerage Company : A business whose main responsibility is to be an intermediary that puts buyers and sellers together in order to facilitate a transaction. Brokerage companies are compensated via commission after the transaction has been successfully completed.
BSP-Flat Cost : Basic Sale Price
Builder : Real Estate Developer
Built Up Area : Carpet area + area of walls and ducts.Around 10% more than the carpet area. A terrace is considered as half the actual area for calculating built up area. Some projects charge dry terrace same as internal rooms.
Bunglow : A one-story house, cottage or cabin. Bungalows are generally small in terms of square footage, but it is not uncommon to see very large bungalows. Bungalows were originally designed to provide affordable, modern housing for the working class.
Buydown : A mortgage-financing technique with which the buyer attempts to obtain a lower interest rate for at least the first few years of the mortgage, but possibly its entire life. The builder or seller or the property usually provides payments to the mortgage-lending institution, which, in turn, lowers the buyer's monthly interest rate and therefore monthly payment. The home seller, however, increases the purchase price of the home to compensate for the costs of the buydown agreement.
JARGONS : C
Capitalization Rate : A rate of return on a real estate investment property based on the expected income that the property will generate. Capitalization rate is used to estimate the investor's potential return on his or her investment. This is done by dividing the income the property will generate (after fixed costs and variable costs) by the total value of the property. If you want to get technical, it is basically the discount rate of a perpetuity. Capitalization Rate = Yearly Income/Total Value Also known as "cap rate".
Carpet Area : The actual area you use. The area on which "you can put a carpet"
Cash-Out Refinance : Cash-out refinances are a popular way for borrowers to access the equity in their homes to pay down consumer debt or make additional purchases. Borrowers need to make a risk-based assessment of whether extracting equity from a home is economical. Borrowers also need to be aware that refinancing a mortgage has costs, including the fact that the lender may charge a higher interest rate on a cash-out refinance than a rate-and-term refinance.
Chain (real estate) : in the process of buying or selling a house
Chain free property : A chain free property is a property that is being sold by a vendor (home seller) who does not need to purchase a new property after they sell.
Chain of title : In a real estate transaction, the chain of title is researched on behalf of the buyer by a title company, which summarizes all title transfers and encumbrances in a title report. Title insurance is used by buyers to protect against financial loss ensuing from errors in the title report.
Chatak / Satak : A unit for measuring land. 1 Chatak / Satak = 45 Sq.ft.
Chawls : A chawl is a name for a type of building found in India. They are often 4 to 5 stories with about 10 to 20 tenements, referred to as kholis, which literally mean 'rooms' on each floor. Many chawls can be found in Mumbai where they were constructed in abundance to house the people migrating to Mumbai because of its booming cotton mills and overall strong economy.
Closing (real estate) : Closing (or settlement) is the final step in executing a real estate transaction.
Closing costs : Real property in most jurisdictions is conveyed from the seller to the buyer through a real estate contract.
Club : A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal. A service club, for example, exists for voluntary or charitable activities; there are clubs devoted to hobbies and sports, social activities clubs, political and religious clubs, and so forth.
Club Membership Registration Charge (CMRC) : A charge for membership of a Club
Co-Applicant : An additional person seeking to obtain a loan with a primary applicant. One reason a potential borrower might want a co-applicant is to increase his odds of qualifying for a loan or to qualify for a larger loan. A co-applicant is also desirable if the loan is for the purchase of property that will be owned equally by both borrowers, such as business partners or spouses.
Co-borrower : Any additional borrower(s) whose name(s) appear on loan documents and whose income and credit history are used to qualify for the loan. Under this arrangement, all parties involved have an obligation to repay the loan. For mortgages, the names of applicable co-borrowers also appear on the property's title.
Collateral Collateral is a form of security to the lender in case the borrower fails to pay back the loan. For example, if you get a mortgage, your collateral would be your house. In margin trading, the securities in your account act as collateral in the case of a margin call.
Collateralization The act where a borrower pledges an asset as recourse to the lender in the event that the borrower defaults on the initial loan. Collateralization of assets gives lenders a sufficient level of reassurance against default risk, which allows loans to be issued to individuals/companies with less than optimal credit history/debt rating.
Combination Loan : 1. A transaction consisting of two separate loans for the same borrower by the same lender. The initial loan is used to finance the construction of a new home; upon completion of construction, the loan is repaid by a second loan, which is a permanent mortgage on the home. The initial construction loan is usually an adjustable-rate mortgage, while the subsequent mortgage might be any one of the mortgage types available. 2. The simultaneous use of a first and second mortgage to finance a home. The first loan is usually made for 80% of the home's value and has a first lien position, while the second loan is usually for 10-20% of the home's value and has a second lien position. This transaction is frequently used to avoid having to pay private mortgage insurance. This type of combination loan is also known as a "piggy-back" or "80-10-10 transaction".
Commercial Investment : An investment in a for-profit enterprise involved in the buying and/or selling of goods and/or services that is expected to generate cash flow. A commercial investment can be assumed by an individual, group or institution. Frequently, a commercial investment is shared by a group of investors combining assets in order to fund the investment.
Commercial Property : Real estate property that is used for business activities.
Commercial Real Estate : Property that is solely used for business purposes. Examples are malls, industrial parks, gas stations, convenience stores and office towers.
Common amenities :
Common Area :
Common Resource : A resource, such as water or pasture, that provides users with tangible benefits. A major concern with common resources is overuse, especially when there are poor social-management systems in place to protect the core resource. Common resources that are not owned by anyone are called open-access resources.
Community center :
Community hall :
Companion Tranche : A class of tranche found in planned amortization class (PAC) and targeted amortization class (TAC) collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) that absorbs variable prepayment rates. The companion trache is so named because it is designed to provide support to the main PAC tranche, which has priority in receiving principal and interest payments so as to give its investors steadier and more predictable cash flows. If the actual rate of prepayments differs from the assumptions made at the time the CMO was issued, the difference is absorbed by the companion tranche. Also known as a "support tranche".
Comparables : A valuation technique in which a recently sold asset is used to determine the value of a similar asset. This technique is often used in real estate to determine the initial sale price of a property.
Conditional Offer : In general, an agreement between a buyer and a seller that an offer will be made if a certain condition is met. In real estate transactions, conditions can include a home inspection or a mortgage application. Once the conditions are satisfied, the buyer or seller will then be obligated to purchase or sell the property. If the conditions are not met then the buyer or seller is not obligated to purchase or sell the property.
Condominium : Building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds are owned and shared jointly. There are townhouse or rowhouse style condominiums as well.
Condominium : A large property complex that is divided into individual units and sold. Ownership usually includes a non-exclusive interest in certain "common properties" controlled by the condominium management.
Condominium Fee : A maintenance fee charged by a condominium complex to cover the cost of repairs, landscaping, concierges, or amenities such as a gym or a pool. The condominium fee can be pegged to the size of the unit and what the development expects its expenses to be for the year. If expenses are expected to rise, so too will the condominium fees.
Condotel : A condominium project that is operated as a hotel with a registration desk, cleaning service and more. The units are individually owned. Unit owners also have the option to place their unit in the hotels rental program where it is rented out like any other hotel room.
Construction Lien : A claim made against a property by a contractor or other professional who has supplied labor or materials for work on that property. Construction liens are designed to protect professionals from the risk of not being paid for services rendered. Remedies vary from state to state, and can differ depending on whether the property in question is real property or personal property.
Construction Mortgage : A loan borrowed to finance the construction of a home and typically only interest is paid during the construction period. Once the construction is over, the loan amount becomes due and it becomes a normal mortgage. The money is advanced incrementally during construction, as construction progresses.
Contributory Value : A real estate term that refers to the contribution a particular component has to the value of the whole property.
Convertible ARM : An Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM) that gives the borrower the option to convert to a fixed-rate mortgage. Convertible ARMs are marketed as a way to avoid rising interest rates and usually include specific conditions. The financial institution often charges a fee to switch the ARM to a fixed-rate mortgage.
Conveyance : A written instrument, such as a deed or lease, that transfers some ownership interest in real property from one person to another.
Conveyance Deed :
Conveyance Tax :
Cooperative : A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multiunit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit.
Covered Car Park :
JARGONS : D
Dangerous Asset : An asset which, by its nature, creates a substantial risk of liability to the asset owner. Dangerous assets include commercial real estate, motor vehicles and construction equipment. Risk of personal injury and/or property damage is higher with dangerous assets. For example, a truck, by its mere use, has the potential to cause physical harm to its occupant as well as bystanders.
Decree Of Foreclosure And Sale : A declaration made by a court indicating that a piece of property is to be sold in order to cover outstanding debts. A decree of foreclosure and sale is most frequently used on a mortgaged property, with the proceeds from the sale going to the mortgage lender.
Deed : A legal document that grants the bearer a right or privilege, provided that he or she meets a number of conditions. In order to receive the privilege - usually ownership, the bearer must be able to do so without causing others undue hardship. A person who poses a risk to society as a result of holding a deed may be restricted in his or her ability to use the property. Deeds are most known for being used to transfer the ownership of automobiles or land between two parties.
Deed In Lieu Of Foreclosure : A potential option taken by a mortgagor (a borrower) to avoid foreclosure under which the mortgagor deeds the collateral property (the home) back to the mortgagee (the lender) in exchange for the release of all obligations under the mortgage. Both sides must enter into the agreement voluntarily and in good faith.
Deed Of Release : A legal document that removes a previous claim or lien on an asset. A deed of release is usually issued once a mortgage or other type of debt, previously secured against the asset, has been paid in full. After the deed of release is written, the asset is owned free and clear by the owner, and any previous claims against the asset that the lender may have had are dissolved.
Developer : Document or Transaction Stamps or Taxes paid by either or both parties depending on location (area of jurisdiction), charged by a governmental entity as an excise tax upon the transaction. Required by law.
: A type of payment made in cash during the onset of the purchase of an expensive good/service. The payment typically represents only a percentage of the full purchase price; in some cases it is not refundable if the deal falls through. Financing arrangements are made by the purchaser to cover the remaining amount owed to the seller. Making a down payment and then paying the rest of the price through installments is a method that makes expensive assets more affordable for the typical person. The person who rents land or property to a lessee. / The lessor is known also as the "landlord".
Duplex : Two units with one shared wall.
JARGONS : E
Earnest Money : A deposit made to a seller showing the buyer's good faith in a transaction. Often used in real estate transactions, earnest money allows the buyer additional time when seeking financing. Earnest money is typically held jointly by the seller and buyer in a trust or escrow account.
Easement : The right of one party to use the property of another party. A fee is paid to the owner of the property in return for the right of easement. Easements are often purchased by public utility companies for the right to erect telephone poles or run pipes either above or beneath private property.
Encroachment : A situation in real estate where a property owner violates the property rights of his neighbor by building something on the neighbor's land or by allowing something to hang over onto the neighbor's property. Encroachment can be a problem along property lines when a property owner is not aware of his property boundaries or intentionally chooses to violate his neighbor's boundaries. This is also known as structural encroachment.
Endowment Loan : A type of mortgage in which the borrower makes only interest payments on the mortgage, while payments that would have gone to repay the principal are instead funneled into an endowment fund. Under an endowment loan, the borrower does not repay the principal until the mortgage expires.
Escrow Agent : An entity that has fiduciary responsibilities in the transfer of property from one party to another. Typically associated with selling or buying a home or other property, the escrow agent will secure the property and examine documents to make sure that the terms of the sale are met on each end, serving both the buyer and seller in the transaction.
Estate : The ownership interest of an individual in real property.The sum total of all the real property and personal property owned by an individual at time of death.
Eviction : A landlord's legal removal of a tenant from his rental property. Eviction may occur when rent has not been paid, when the terms of the rental agreement have been breached or in certain other situations, such as the conversion of the rental unit to a condo.
Exclusive Listing : A real estate sale transaction in which a specified real estate agent stands to gain a commission if a property sells within a specified number of months, no matter how a buyer is found. The purpose of an exclusive listing is to motivate the agent to sell the property quickly and at the highest price possible. However, if a homeowner signed an exclusive listing agreement with an agent and also placed an ad for the property, if the buyer found out about the property from the ad, the real estate agent would still earn a commission unless the seller has also established exclusive agency (the right of the seller to sell the property himself and avoid paying a commission despite the exclusive listing agreement).
Executor : An individual appointed to administrate the estate of a deceased person. The executor's main duty is to carry out the instructions and wishes of the deceased. The executor is appointed either by the testator of the will (the individual who makes the will) or by a court, in cases where there was no prior appointment.
Extender Clause : In real estate, a provision of an exclusive listing agreement that allows the exclusive agent to receive full commission after the exclusive listing agreement has expired if a potential buyer the agent brought to the house during the listing period came back later and decided to complete the purchase. An extender clause is also known as a protection clause or safety clause.
JARGONS : F
Factor : 1. A financial intermediary that purchases receivables from companies. 2. In terms of mortgages, the ratio of principal outstanding to the original balance.
Fair Market Value : The price that a given property or asset would fetch in the marketplace, subject to the following conditions: 1. Prospective buyers and sellers are reasonably knowledgeable about the asset; they are behaving in their own best interests and are free of undue pressure to trade. 2. A reasonable time period is given for the transaction to be completed. Given these conditions, an asset's fair market value should represent an accurate valuation or assessment of its worth.
Fallout Risk : The lending risk that occurs when the terms of a loan are confirmed simultaneously with the terms of a property sale. Because the mortgage terms are set but the sale is not finalized, there is a risk that the transaction may not be completed. This represents a risk to the mortgage pipeline, as the loan may not be issued.
Finder's Fee : A commission paid to an intermediary or the facilitator of a transaction. The finder's fee is rewarded because the intermediary discovered the deal and brought it forth to interested parties. Depending on the circumstance, the finder's fee can be paid by either the transaction's buyer or seller. Also known as "referral income" or "referral fee".
First Mortgage : A mortgage in a first lien position on the property that secures the mortgage. A first mortgage has priority over all other liens or claims on a property in the event of default.
First-Time Home Buyer : An individual who is purchasing a principal residence for the first time. First-time home buyers are more commonly recognized according to several criteria with regards to an individual retirement account (IRA). If these criteria are met the owner can be granted special privileges, such as exemption from the early-distribution penalty.
Fixed-Period ARM : An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) with an initial fixed-interest-rate period. After the fixed-interest rate expires, the interest rate starts to adjust based on an index plus a margin. The amount by which the interest rate can adjust after the fixed period is usually subject to an interest rate cap structure. These are often called "hybrid ARMs".
Fixed-Rate Mortgage : A mortgage that has a fixed interest rate for the entire term of the loan. The distinguishing factor of a fixed-rate mortgage is that the interest rate over every time period of the mortgage is known at the time the mortgage is originated. The benefit of a fixed-rate mortgage is that the homeowner will not have to contend with varying loan payment amounts that fluctuate with interest rate movements.
Flexible Payment ARM : A type of adjustable-rate mortgage that allows the borrower to select from four different payment options each month: a 30-year, fully amortizing payment; a 15-year, fully amortizing payment; an interest-only payment or a "minimum payment". Flexible payment ARMs are also known as "payment option ARMs".
Flipping : A type of real estate investment strategy in which an investor purchases properties with the goal of reselling them for a profit. Profit is generated either through the price appreciation that occurs as a result of a hot housing market and/or from renovations and capital improvements. Investors who employ these strategies face the risk of price depreciation in bad housing markets.
Flood Insurance : A financial instrument that protects real property owners from water damage to the structure and/or contents of their property. While flood insurance can be purchased through many different insurance companies, all policies are federally regulated so that the same policy costs the same amount no matter which company it is purchased through.
Floor Area Ratio - FAR : The total square feet of a building divided by the total square feet of the lot the building is located on. FAR is used by local governments in zoning codes. Higher FARs tend to indicate more urban (dense) construction.
Floor Loan : In real estate construction, the minimum loan that a lender agrees to advance in order to enable the builder to commence construction and development of a project. Floor loans apply to buildings that will be occupied by tenants.
Floor plan :
Floor rise :
For Sale By Owner - FSBO : A method of selling property without the use of an agent or broker. Generally, the reason that the seller does not use the services of an agent or broker is because they want to avoid paying a hefty commission for the transaction.
Foreclosure - FCL : A situation in which a homeowner is unable to make principal and/or interest payments on his or her mortgage, so the lender, be it a bank or building society, can seize and sell the property as stipulated in the terms of the mortgage contract.
Foreclosure Action : The legal proceedings initiated by a lender in the case of mortgage default. When a borrower fails to make mortgage payments or otherwise fails to fulfill any of the obligations set forth in the mortgage agreement, the lender can enforce its rights through a foreclosure. Foreclosure is the process of selling the mortgaged property and using the proceeds of the sale to repay debt; Foreclosure action is the actual filing of and carrying through of the foreclosure process.
Foreclosure Buyout : A refinancing program that allows a homeowner to avoid foreclosure on their home. Foreclosure buyouts are typically a refinancing loan which the homeowner obtains to cover the portion of the current mortgage that is in default. Of course, finding a lender that will lend to a borrower that is in the process of being foreclosed on can be difficult and if successful, the loan will usually be accompanied by a high interest rate.
Foreclosure Filing : The initial legal process of selling a mortgaged property that is in default. When a borrower defaults in making mortgage payments or otherwise fails to fulfill the terms of the mortgage agreement, the lender can enforce its rights through the foreclosure process. Foreclosure filings refer to the statutory procedural requirements followed by the lender and all involved parties, including any documentation and court hearings. The procedure depends on state laws.
Fractional Ownership : Percentage ownership in an asset. Fractional ownership shares in the asset are sold to individual shareholders who share the benefits of the asset such as usage rights, income sharing, priority access and/or reduced rates. The usage benefits that the fractional owners receive are similar to those of timeshare owners.
Front-End Ratio : A ratio that indicates what portion of an individual's income is used to make mortgage payments. It is calculated as an individual's monthly housing expenses divided by his or her monthly gross income and is expressed as a percentage. Monthly gross income is simply annual income divided by 12 (months). Lenders use the front-end ratio in conjunction with the back-end ratio to approve mortgages.
Fully Amortizing Payment : A periodic loan payment, part of which is principal and part of which is interest, where if the borrower makes payment according to the loan's amortization schedule, the loan will be paid-off by the end of its set term. If the loan is a fixed-rate loan, each fully amortizing payment will be equal an amount. If the loan is an adjustable-rate loan, the fully amortizing payment may change as the interest rate on the loan changes.
Future Advance : A clause in a mortgage which enables the lender to advance funds after the loan closing. The initial agreement of the loan remains intact in that no additional collateral is required, and no refinancing is necessary. Future advance can refer to a variety of loans such as home equity loans, construction loans and commercial loan advance mortgages where the amount of the loan has not been fully used at the time of loan closing.
JARGONS : G
Garbage Fees : Unnecessary fees tacked onto mortgage closing costs by lenders to pad the lender's profit. Garbage fees may have names such as "administrative fee", "application fee", appraisal review fee", "courier fee", "document preparation fee", "document review fee","loan origination fee" and "settlement fee". These charges are usually either blatantly illegitimate or are typical costs of business but either way, they are dramatically exaggerated before being passed on to the customer.
Gazump : A situation in which the price for real estate or land is raised to a higher price than what was previously verbally agreed upon.
Gazunder : When a buyer reduces his or her bid for a property before the transaction has been signed and finalized.
Ghetto : A run-down urban area primarily inhabited by a single minority group. Ghettos are often characterized by high unemployment, high crime, gang activity, inadequate municipal services, widespread drug use, high rates of dropout from school, broken families and an absence of businesses. As a result, real estate value in ghetto communities are generally much cheaper than in other communities.
Grace Period : A provision in most loan and insurance contracts which allows payment to be received for a certain period of time after the actual due date. During this period no late fees will be charged, and the late payment will not result in default or cancellation of the loan. A typical grace period is 15 days.
Graduated Lease : A lease (usually long-term) that is periodically adjusted to reflect the appraised value of the asset being leased.
Graduated Payment Mortgage : A type of fixed-rate mortgage in which the payment increases gradually from an initial low base level to a desired, final level. Typically, the payments will grow 7-12% annually from their initial base payment amount until the full payment is reached.
Graduation Period : The period of time on a graduated payment mortgage during which the monthly payment rises by a certain percentage at set intervals, usually annually. The interest rate at which monthly payments are set to increase by is fixed over the entire graduation period. If the actual payment is less than what an interest-only payment would be, negative amortization is created.
Graduation Rate : The percentage increase in the monthly payment on a graduated payment mortgage. The increase occurs at set intervals, usually annually. The interest rate on a graduated payment mortgage is fixed for the life of the loan. The initial monthly payments are set below a fully amortizing payment, and increase at the graduation rate over the graduation period until the payment becomes large enough to amortize the mortgage over its remaining term.
Grantee : The person to whom an interest in real property is conveyed.
Grantor : The person conveying an interest in real property.
Ground Rent Arrangement : A situation in which someone owns a structure but not the land the structure is located on. Because she does not own the land, she has to pay rent on it. It is common for hotels and office buildings to be subject to ground rent arrangements; sometimes houses are, too. Ground rent arrangements are more common in some states than others.
Gunta : A unit for measuring land. 1 Gunta = 1089 Sq.ft.
JARGONS : H
Habendum Clause : A section in a real estate contract that transfers ownership of a property with no restrictions. The new owner has absolute ownership of the property and has the right to sell it, bequeath it to an heir, and so on. Because the clause begins with the phrase, "To have and to hold," the habendum clause is sometimes called the "to have and to hold clause."
Holdover Tenant : A renter who remains in a property after the expiration of the lease. If the landlord continues to accept rent payments, the holdover tenant can continue to legally occupy the property. State laws and court rulings determine how long the holdover tenant's new rental term is if the landlord accepts rent. If the landlord does not accept further rent payments, the tenant is considered to be trespassing if he does not promptly move out, and eviction may be necessary to force the tenant to leave.
Home Debtor : An individual who holds a large mortgage with little or no equity in the home. The term "home debtor" is often used to describe those who will likely never be able to pay off their mortgage because of the costs associated with home ownership, such as property taxes, mortgage payments, insurance and necessary repairs.
Home Equity : The value of ownership built up in a home or property that represents the current market value of the house less any remaining mortgage payments. This value is built up over time as the property owner pays off the mortgage and the market value of the property appreciates.
Home Inspection : An examination of a real estate property's condition, usually performed in connection with the property's sale. A qualified home inspector can assess the condition of a property's roof, foundation, heating and cooling systems, plumbing, electrical work, water and sewage, and some fire and safety issues. In addition, the home inspector will look for evidence of insect, water or fire damage or any other issue that may affect the value of the property.
Home Lien : A legal claim placed on a home that makes selling the home, obtaining a mortgage or refinancing the property more difficult until outstanding financial obligations are met. A lien placed on a home is part of the public record in the county where the home is located, and can be filed by anyone who has a legal interest in the property. Common forms of liens include tax liens, mechanic's liens and judgment liens.
Home Mortgage : A loan given by a bank, mortgage company or other financial institution for the purchase of a primary or investment residence. In a home mortgage, the owner of the property (the borrower) transfers the title to the lender on the condition that the title will be transferred back to the owner once the payment has been made and other terms of the mortgage have been met. A home mortgage will have either a fixed or floating interest rate, which is paid monthly along with a contribution to the principal loan amount. As the homeowner pays down the principal over time, the interest is calculated on a smaller base so that future mortgage payments apply more towards principal reduction as opposed to just paying the interest charges.
Home Warranties : paid by either the buyer or the seller. Warranties are available on resale homes insuring major household systems against repair or replacement for the buyer's initial year of ownership. Sellers will sometimes offer these warranties as a marketing strategy, or buyers can elect to purchase them at closing.
Housing Societies :
Hybrid ARM : An adjustable-rate mortgage blends the characteristics of a fixed-rate mortgage and an adjustable-rate mortgage. This type of mortgage will have an initial fixed interest rate period followed by an adjustable rate period. After the fixed interest rate expires, the interest rate starts to adjust based on an index plus a margin. The date at which the mortgage changes from the fixed rate to the adjustable rate is referred to as the reset date. Also known as "fixed period ARMs".
JARGONS : I
Impact Fee : A fee imposed on property developers by municipalities for the new infrastructure that must be built or increased due to new property development. These fees are designed to offset the impact of additional development and residents on the municipality's infrastructure and services, which include the city's water and sewer network, police and fire protection services, schools and libraries. These fees can also be levied against any individual or entity where its actions create an externality within a municipality.
Impound : An account maintained by mortgage companies to collect amounts such as hazard insurance, property taxes, private mortgage insurance and other required payments from the mortgage holders; these payments are necessary to keep the home but are not technically part of the mortgage. Impound accounts are often required of borrowers who put down less than 20%, but are usually optional in other cases. The purpose of the impound account is to protect the lender. Because low down-payment borrowers are considered high risk, the impound account assures the lender that the borrower will not lose the home because of liens or loss, as the lender pays insurance, taxes, etc. from the impound account when they are due.
Income Property : Property bought or developed to earn income through renting, leasing or price appreciation. Income property can be residential or commercial. Residential income property is commonly referred to as "non-owner occupied". A mortgage for a "non-owner occupied" property may carry a higher interest rate than an "owner occupied" mortgage as it is viewed by lenders as a higher risk.
Income Property Mortgage : A loan given to an investor to purchase a residential or commercial rental property. Income property mortgages are typically much harder to qualify for and often require a borrower to include estimates of the rental income that will be received from the property. Unlike owner-occupied and single-family residences, there are few government loan programs to assist in the purchase of income properties. This leaves investors at the mercy of private lenders, who themselves are at the mercy of the credit markets.
Indexed ARM : An adjustable-rate mortgage on which the interest rate adjusts periodically according to an underlying benchmark index plus a margin. An adjustable-rate mortgage contract states which index will be used, how often the interest rate will adjust and usually sets a limit on the maximum amount the interest rate can adjust upward over the life of the mortgage. Some adjustable-rate mortgages also have limits on the amount the interest rate can adjust at each interest rate adjustment date.
Indexed Rate : An interest rate charged on loans to borrowers that is calculated by taking the sum of a benchmark index interest rate and a specified margin. The indexed rate is used to calculate the interest rate on an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM). The benchmark index rate is a variable rate, while the specified margin remains fixed. On an ARM with an initial fixed interest rate, commonly known as a "hybrid ARM" or "fixed-period ARM", the term "indexed rate" is most often called the "fully indexed rate".
Industrial Park : A portion of a city that is zoned for industrial use (as opposed to residential or commercial use). Industrial parks may contain oil refineries, ports, warehouses, distribution centers, chemical plants, plastics manufacturers, airports, food and beverage processors, and steel manufacturers, to name just a few examples. Some industrial parks offer tax incentives for businesses to locate there, such as tax increment financing.
Initial Interest Rate : The interest rate that is initially assessed on an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) and advertised in the origination process. The initial interest rate will be in force for a limited period of time, typically between 12 and 24 months. After this window of time is closed, the interest rate will reset itself to an index plus spread value that is higher than the initial rate. May also be called a "teaser rate".
Initial Rate Period : The period of an introductory or "teaser" interest rate on a mortgage or other loan. The initial rate period varies by loan type and can be as short as one month or as long as several years. Some loans, such as 2-1 or 3-2-1 buydown mortgages, have initial rate periods during which the interest rate increases incrementally.
Inspection Fees : usually paid by the buyer (although occasionally by the seller), charged by licensed home, pest, or other inspectors. Some lenders require inspections (such as termite inspection) to verify that the property is in good condition, which is necessary to assure that the property will retain the necessary collateral value to secure the mortgage loan.
Installment Sale : A method of sale that allows for partial deferral of any capital gain to future taxation years. Installment sales require the buyer to make regular payments, or installments, on an annual basis, plus interest if installment payments are to be made in subsequent taxation years.
Interest Cost : The cumulative sum of the amount of interest paid on a loan by a borrower. This amount should include any points paid to reduce the interest rate on a loan, since points are in effect pre-paid interest. Additionally, any negative points or rebates paid by a lender to a borrower should be subtracted from the interest cost as they are in effect a refund of future interest the borrower will pay on the loan.
Interest Due : The portion of a current mortgage payment that is comprised of interest on the remaining principal amount. In a standard amortizing mortgage, the first payments will go mainly toward interest due, with only a small percentage of the payment going toward reducing the principal amount. When the next monthly payment comes around, the interest due will be calculated on the updated principal amount, which will have decreased slightly from the prior month's payment. As time progresses, the interest due each month should fall as a percentage of the monthly payment, with more money going toward reducing the principal.
Interest Only (IO) Strips : The interest portion of mortgage, Treasury or bond payments, which is separated and sold individually from the principal portion of those same payments. The periodic payments of several bonds can be "stripped" to form synthetic zero-coupon bonds. Also, an IO strip might be part of a larger collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO), asset-backed security (ABS) or collateralized debt obligation (CDO) structure.
Interest Rate Cap Structure : Limits to the interest rate on an adjustable-rate loan - frequently associated with a mortgage. There are several different types of interest rate cap structures including an initial, periodic and lifetime interest rate cap structure. The initial cap is a value that limits by what amount the interest can adjust at the mortgages first interest rate adjustment date. The period cap is a value that limits by what amount the interest rate can adjust at each subsequent adjustment date. The lifetime cap limits the total amount by which the interest rate can adjust over the life of the mortgage.
Interest Rate Ceiling : The maximum interest rate that a financial institution can charge a borrower for an adjustable rate mortgage or loan according to the contractual terms of the mortgage or loan. This interest rate is expressed as an absolute percentage.
Interest-Only ARM : An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) with an initial interest-only payment period. During the interest-only period, only the calculated interest must be paid; no principal must be repaid. The length of the interest-only period varies with each mortgage type. After the interest-only period, the mortgage must amortize so that the mortgage will be paid off by the end of its original term. This means that monthly payments must increase substantially after the initial interest-only period lapses.
Investment Farm : A farm owned solely for investment purposes.
Investment Property : A real estate property that has been purchased with the intention of earning a return on the investment (purchase), either through rent (income), the future resale of the property, or both. An investment property can be a long-term endeavor, such as an apartment building, or an intended short-term investment in the case of flipping (where a property is bought, remodeled or renovated, and sold at a profit).
Investment Real Estate : Real estate that generates income or is otherwise intended for investment purposes rather than as a primary residence. It is common for investors to own multiple pieces of real estate, one of which serves as a primary residence, while the others are used to generate rental income and profits through price appreciation. The tax implications for investment real estate are often different than those for residential real estate.
Involuntary Foreclosure : When a borrower defaults on a home mortgage loan and the lender initiates proceedings to take possession of the house and sell it to recover the debt. In an involuntary foreclosure, the borrower typically remains liable for the full amount of the debt. If the house sells for less than the amount the borrower owed on the mortgage, the borrower may still be required to pay the remaining balance.
JARGONS : J
Jingle Mail : A situation where a homeowner mails his or her house keys to a mortgage lender due to an inability to meet mortgage payment obligations and a lack of equity in the property. If a homeowner is upside-down in a mortgage and feels the entire loan is a lost cause, he or she may choose to walk away from the property altogether and relinquish it to the original lender instead of going though the foreclosure process.
Joint Credit : Credit issued to two or more people based on their combined incomes, assets and credit histories. The parties involved accept joint responsibility for repaying the debt.
Judicial Foreclosure : Foreclosure proceedings in which a mortgage lacks the power of sale clause. In such an instance, many states require the foreclosure to be processed through the state's courts. If the court confirms that the debt is in default, an auction is held for the sale of the property in order to acquire funds to repay the lender. This differs from non-judicial foreclosures, which are processed without court intervention.
Jumbo Loan : A mortgage with a loan amount exceeding the conforming loan limits. Also referred to as "Jumbo Mortgage".
Junior Mortgage : A mortgage that is subordinate to a first or prior (senior) mortgage. A junior mortgage often refers to a second mortgage, but it could also be a third or fourth mortgage. In the case of foreclosure, the senior mortgage will be paid down first.
Junk Fees : Nebulous charges assessed at the closing of a mortgage that go to the originator or lender. These fees are hidden in the mortgage documents and are usually assessed as raw dollars rather than "points" or a percentage of the loan. Junk fees may or may not pay for an actual service to the borrower, but they typically are not known to the borrower prior to signing. Some common fees that may be considered junk fees include settlement fees, sign-up fees, underwriting fees, funding fees, translation fees and messenger fees. Also known as "padding fees" or "garbage fees".
Just Compensation : One reason why an individual who loses his home to eminent domain may not consider the fair market value of the property to be just compensation is because it does not take into account the time, stress, and expense of locating, purchasing, and moving to a new property. Just compensation also fails to account for the loss of neighborhood social networks or the emotional ties the owner may have to the property.
JARGONS : K
Key Money : A payment made to a building owner, manager or landlord by a potential tenant in an attempt to secure a desired tenancy. Key money can be considered a type of deposit on a housing unit such as an apartment unit. Key money also refers to a security deposit paid by a lessor or a lessee for a leased property.
Kicker : A right, exercisable warrant, or other feature that is added to a debt instrument to make it more desirable to potential investors by giving the debt holder the potential option to purchase shares in the issuer. The kicker may or may not actually be usable; often a certain breakpoint must be reached (such as a stock price above a certain level) before the kicker has any real value. In real estate, an added expense that must be paid on a mortgage in order to get a loan approved. An example would be an equity stake in receipts of a retail or rental property.
Kottahs : A unit for measuring land. 1 Kottahs/Cottah = 720 Sq. ft.
JARGONS : L
Land : Property or real estate, not including buildings or equipment, that does not occur naturally. Depending on the title, land ownership may also give the holder the rights to all natural resources on the land. These may include water, plants, human and animal life, fossils, soil, minerals, electromagnetic features, geographical location, and geophysical occurrences.
Land Contract : An agreement between a buyer and seller of property in which the buyer makes payments toward full ownership (as with a mortgage), but in a land contract, the title or deed is held by the owner until the full payment is made. This type of contract is technically not a legally binding agreement and, therefore, many different types of payment formats can be found. As in a standard mortgage, there is an agreed upon price and payment schedule, but the payments are often not amortized evenly, so that a large balloon payment may be required to complete the purchase. Also known as an installment purchase contract or an installment sale agreement.
Land Flip : A fraudulent practice in the real estate business of selling undeveloped land at highly inflated prices. A land flip occurs when a group of dishonest buyers trades the land among its members, increasing the price with each transaction. The group will then finally unload the property onto an unsuspecting outside buyer at a price that the buyer will likely never be able to recoup from its own sale of the land.
Land Lease Option : An option within a lease contract that grants the lessee the right to extend the period of the lease beyond the original length of time. Usually, the lessee is required to pay a premium for the option, such as a small amount of money in each year of the original lease.
Land Trust : A legal agreement where a trustee is appointed to maintain ownership of a piece of real property for the benefit of another party: namely, the beneficiary of the trust. Land trusts are used by several different types of organizations for several reasons; nonprofit entities use them to hold conservation easements, and corporations and investment groups use them to accumulate large portions of land.
Land Value : The total value of the land, including any upgrades or improvements to the land.
Land Value Tax - LVT : A tax on the value of a piece of land. Land value tax inherently makes up a portion of all real estate property tax; however, land value tax takes only the fair value of the land into account. The taxation of land is very straightforward, requiring only a valuation of the land.
Landlocked : In a business sense, a piece of property that is totally inaccessible via public thoroughfare, except through an adjacent lot. A vacant lot that is located behind a strip mall and can only be reached by walking through the mall qualifies as this type of lot. Landlocked property is "locked up" all around by other property.
Landlord : A real estate owner who rents or leases land or a building to another party, known as a tenant. The landlord will often provide the necessary maintenance or repairs during the rental period, while the tenant is responsible for the cleanliness and general upkeep of the property. A female landlord may be referred to as a "landlady."
Landominium : A type of residential property in which the owner owns both the home and the land on which the home is built. The home is a part of a community, like a condominium, where the landscaping, maintenance and other services are provided by a homeowners' association.
Lease : An agreement in which one party gains a long-term rental agreement, and the other party receives a form of secured long-term debt.
Lease Option : An agreement that gives a renter the choice to purchase a property during or at the end of the rental period. As long as the lease option period is in effect, the landlord/seller may not offer the property for sale to anyone else. When the term expires, the renter must either exercise or forfeit the purchase option. A lease option gives a renter/potential buyer more flexibility than a lease-purchase agreement, which requires the renter to purchase the property at the end of the rental period.
Lease Rate : The amount of money paid over a specified time period for the rental of an asset, such as real property or an automobile. The lease rate that the lender earns from allowing someone else to use his property compensates him for not being able to put that property to another use during the term of the lease.
Lease To Own : An arrangement where an individual enters into a lease agreement with an owner with the inclusion of a clause that typically gives the individual the right, but not the obligation, to purchase the item leased at a predefined price and time. More often than not, a portion of the total rental payment goes toward paying down the value of the item leased in the event that the renter wishes to exercise the option.
Leaseback : An arrangement where the seller of an asset leases back the same asset from the purchaser.
Leasehold Improvement : Improvements on a leased asset that increase the value of the asset.
Lender-Paid Private Mortgage Insurance : Private mortgage insurance that a mortgage lender pays on behalf of a borrower. Mortgage lenders generally require private mortgage insurance if a mortgage has a loan to value (LTV) ratio of more than 80%. When a lender pays the private mortgage insurance on behalf of the borrower, they do so in exchange for charging the borrower a higher interest rate. In other words, the borrower still pays for the private mortgage insurance, but does so in the form of a higher interest rate.
Lessee : An agreement in which one party gains a long-term rental agreement, and the other party receives a form of secured long-term debt.
Lessor : The person who rents land or property from a lessor. / The lessee is known also as the "tenant".
Level Payment Mortgage : Level payment mortgages can be either fixed or variable-rate loans. This type of mortgage can sometimes result in negative amortization, which inflates the balance of the loan. These home loans are not appropriate for all types of homeowners and can result in financial entrapment for those who do not understand the possible consequences.
Leveraged Lease : A lease agreement wherein the lessor, by borrowing funds from a lending institution, finances the purchase of the asset being leased.
Liar Loan : A category of mortgages known as low-documentation or no-documentation mortgages that have been abused to the point where the loans are sometimes referred to as liar loans. On certain low-documentation loan programs, such as stated income/stated asset (SISA) loans, income and assets are simply stated on the loan application. On other loan programs, such as no income/no asset (NINA) loans, no income and assets are given on the loan application form. These loan programs open the door for unethical behavior by unscrupulous borrowers and lenders.
Life Cap : The maximum amount that the interest rate on an adjustable rate loan can increase over the term of the loan. A life cap can be expressed as an absolute interest rate - such as a maximum lifetime rate of 12%, which is called an interest rate ceiling - or as a maximum percentage change in the interest rate from the initial interest rate on the loan. When the life cap is expressed as a maximum percentage change from the initial interest rate, it can also apply to interest rate decreases.
Lifetime Cap : The maximum interest rate on an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) that may be charged at any point over the life of the mortgage. The lifetime cap is usually expressed as a percentage increase from an initial interest rate. For example, if a fixed period ARM has an initial fixed interest rate of 5% and a lifetime cap of 5%, the maximum interest rate that may be charged is 10%. Lifetime caps are usually part of a mortgage's interest rate cap structure which consists of initial, periodic and life caps.
Limited Common Elements : Elements of condominium living units that are assigned to specific tenants but are still considered to be property of the condominium. Limited common elements can include front doors, balconies or windows. They can also extend to parking places and boat slips. Limited common elements are normally defined in the condominium documentation.
List Price : 1. The manufacturer's suggested retail price, determined by supply and demand, for consumer goods such as automobiles or electronics. 2. The initial asking price for a real estate property, such as a home, as determined by similar properties that have recently sold in the area. These comparison properties are known as comparables. The list price can be thought of as the starting price for negotiations; it is not necessarily the price that the buyer will pay.
Littoral Land : Land that is located next to a pooled body of water. Littoral land includes land that is situated next to a lake, ocean or sea. The term stands in contrast to riparian land, which is land located next to a river or stream.
Loan Application Fee : A fee charged to process an application for a loan, such as a home mortgage from a lender or mortgage broker. Loan application fees are charged to cover some of the costs involved in processing the application including credit checks, property appraisals and basic administrative costs.
Loan Grading : A system of credit scoring that assigns a rating of asset quality to a portfolio of loans. Loan grading is based upon a comparison of all loans that are outstanding within a given portfolio. This system places loans into one of six categories, ranked from most stable to complete write-off, or unreviewed.
Loan Modification : A modification to an existing loan made by a lender in response to a borrower's long-term inability to repay the loan. Loan modifications typically involve a reduction in the interest rate on the loan, an extension of the length of the term of the loan, a different type of loan or any combination of the three. A lender might be open to modifying a loan because the cost of doing so is less than the cost of default.
Loan Officer : Representatives of banks, credit unions and other financial institutions that find and assist borrowers in acquiring loans. Some specialized loan officers, called loan underwriters, analyze and assess the creditworthiness of potential borrowers to see if they qualify for a loan. Loan officers usually work on either consumer or mortgage loans.
Loan Servicing : The administration aspect of a loan from the time the proceeds are dispersed until the loan is paid off. This includes sending monthly payment statements and collecting monthly payments, maintaining records of payments and balances, collecting and paying taxes and insurance (and managing escrow and impound funds), remitting funds to the note holder, and following up on delinquencies.
Loan-To-Cost Ratio - LTC : A ratio used in commercial real estate construction to compare the amount of the loan used to finance a project to the cost to build the project. If the project cost $1 million to complete and the borrower was asking for $800,000, the loan-to-cost (LTC) ratio would be 80%. The costs included in the $1 million cost figure would be land, construction materials, construction labor, professional fees, permits and so on.
Loan-To-Value Ratio - LTV Ratio : A lending risk assessment ratio that financial institutions and others lenders examine before approving a mortgage. Typically, assessments with high LTV ratios are generally seen as higher risk and, therefore, if the mortgage is accepted, the loan will generally cost the borrower more to borrow or he or she will need to purchase mortgage insurance.
Local Tax : An additional tax on top of federal and state taxes, usually collected in the form of property taxes. Also called "municipal tax".
Locked-In Interest Rate Referring to a loan where the borrower and lender agree on a constant rate for a specified period. The lending institution promises to charge this locked in rate as a legal commitment. Sometimes there are certain qualifications or exceptions which, if not met over the life of the loan, will allow the lender to charge a higher rate. Also known as a fixed rate.
Low / No Documentation Loan : A category of loans which generally fall into the Alt-A sector of mortgage lending that gives borrowers the ability to state a limited amount of information on their mortgage application. Limited income, employment or asset information may be required depending on the specific type of low documentation loan; however, in some cases, the borrower may not need to provide them at all. There are subtle differences between various low documentation and no documentation loan programs offered by mortgage lenders.
Low-Down Mortgages : Mortgage programs which require a minimal down payment. Most low-down mortgages require a down payment of between 3% - 5% of the property value; however, some lenders have programs for 100% financing (or 0% down payment). Low-down mortgages are designed primarily for borrowers with a low to moderate income and first-time home buyers. Other borrowers elect to use low-down mortgages in order to use their down payment elsewhere. Low-down mortgages are offered through several sources, including state and local governments, the Federal Housing Administration, the Veterans Administration and individual lenders.
JARGONS : M
Maintenance Bond : A type of surety bond purchased by a contractor that protects the owner of a completed construction project for a specified time period against defects and faults in materials, workmanship and design that could arise later if the project was done incorrectly. A maintenance bond is not technically insurance, but basically functions as an insurance policy on a construction project to make sure a contractor will either correct any defects that arise or that the owner is compensated for those defects. Pricing a maintenance bond is very different from pricing regular coupon paying bonds.
Maintenance Security Charges (IFMS) :
Mandatory Mortgage Lock : The sale of a mortgage in the secondary mortgage market with terms that require the seller of the mortgage to make delivery to the buyer by a certain date or pair-out of the trade.The requirement to make delivery of the mortgage or pair-out of the trade makes a mandatory mortgage lock different from a best-efforts mortgage lock. A mandatory mortgage lock also carries more risk for the seller of the mortgage.
Manufactured Housing - MH : A housing unit constructed primarily off-site prior to being moved to a piece of property where it is set. The cost of construction per square foot is usually considerably less for manufactured housing than for traditional on-site homes (stick-built homes). In the 1990s, this style of housing accounted for nearly 25% of new home sales for families in the United States. This type of housing also includes "modular homes" - homes divided into multiple sections that are constructed off-site, then assembled like building blocks at the property.
Master Mortgage : Documentation that is filed in the records for public land by mortgage originators as a matter of standard procedure. The master mortgage makes the lien-recording process less complicated and also aids in the sale of mortgages that trade in the secondary market.
Maximum Loan Amount : Describes the maximum amount that a borrower can borrow. The maximum loan amount is based on a combination of different factors involving the specific loan program, the value of the property that secures the loan and the borrower's qualifying ratios and credit history. Lenders typically offer various loan programs with maximum loan amounts tailored for different classes of borrowers.
Maximum Loan-to-Value Ratio : The maximum ratio of a loans size to the value of the property, which secures the loan. The loan-to-value ratio is a measure of risk used by lenders. Different loan programs are viewed to have different risk factors, and therefore, have different maximum loan-to-value ratios.
Meander Line : Lines and boundaries that are established for surveying and mapping. Meander lines are run by surveyors for mapping and surveying purposes for a body of water. The lines are drawn around the lake or pond for the purpose of measuring property that abuts the water.
Meter Connection Charges (MCC) : A charge for giving electric connection.
Millage Rate : The amount per $1,000 that is used to calculate taxes on property. Millage rates are most often found in personal property taxes, where the expressed millage rate is multiplied by the total taxable value of the property to arrive at the property taxes due. Millage rates are also used by school boards to calculate local school taxes to be collected, based on a derivation of the total property value within school district boundaries.
Mini Perm : Short-term financing used to pay off income-producing construction or commercial properties, usually payable in three to five years.
Minimum Down Payment : The minimum cash contribution that must be made by a borrower toward the purchase of a home in order to qualify for a mortgage. The minimum down payment requirements vary by loan program and from lender to lender. Typically, a minimum down payment of 20% of the total loan balance is required to qualify for a loan without having to pay private mortgage insurance.
Minimum Lease Payments : The lowest amount that a lessee can expect to make on a lease over its lifetime. Accountants calculate minimum lease payments in order to assign a present value to a lease.
Modified Gross Lease : A type of real estate rental agreement where the tenant pays base rent at the inception of the lease but in subsequent years pays the base plus a proportional share of some of the other costs associated with the property, such as property taxes, utilities, insurance and maintenance. For example, tenants of a property are required to pay their portion of the total heating expense of an office tower.
Month-To-Month Tenancy : A type of rental agreement. Month-to-month tenancy is based upon the idea that the lease is renewed at the end of each month. If the renter decides to leave at the end of the month, then he/she/they may do so without breaking the lease.
Moratorium : 1) A period of time in which there is a suspension of a specific activity until future events warrant a removal of the suspension or issues regarding the activity have been resolved. 2) In bankruptcy law, a legally binding halt of the right to collect debt.
Mortgage : A debt instrument that is secured by the collateral of specified real estate property and that the borrower is obliged to pay back with a predetermined set of payments. Mortgages are used by individuals and businesses to make large purchases of real estate without paying the entire value of the purchase up front. Mortgages are also known as "liens against property" or "claims on property".
Application Fees : paid by the buyer to the lender, to cover the costs of processing their loan application. In some cases, the buyer would pay the lender the application directly and prior to closing, while in other cases the fee is part of the buyer's closing costs payable at closing.
Mortgage Banker : A company, individual or institution that originates mortgages. Mortgage bankers use their own funds, or funds borrowed from a warehouse lender, to fund mortgages. After a mortgage is originated, a mortgage banker might retain the mortgage in portfolio, or they might sell the mortgage to an investor. Additionally, after a mortgage is originated, a mortgage banker might service the mortgage, or they might sell the servicing rights to another financial institution. A mortgage banker's primary business is to earn the fees associated with loan origination. Most mortgage bankers do not retain the mortgage in portfolio.
Mortgage Bond : A bond secured by a mortgage on one or more assets. These bonds are typically backed by real estate holdings and/or real property such as equipment. In a default situation, mortgage bondholders have a claim to the underlying property and could sell it off to compensate for the default.
Mortgage Broker : An intermediary who brings mortgage borrowers and mortgage lenders together, but does not use its own funds to originate mortgages. A mortgage broker gathers paperwork from a borrower, and passes that paperwork along to a mortgage lender for underwriting and approval. The mortgage funds are then lent in the name of the mortgage lender. A mortgage broker collects an origination fee and/or a yield spread premium from the lender as compensation for its services.
Mortgage Company : A company engaged in the business of originating and/or funding mortgages for residential or commercial property. A mortgage company is often just the originator of a mortgage; they market themselves to potential borrowers and seek funding from one of several client financial institutions that provide the capital for the mortgage itself.
Mortgage Insurance : An insurance policy that protects a mortgage lender or title holder in the event that the borrower defaults on payments, dies, or is otherwise unable to meet the contractual obligations of the mortgage. Mortgage insurance can refer to private mortgage insurance (PMI), mortgage life insurance, or mortgage title insurance. What these have in common is an obligation to make the lender or property holder whole in the event of specific cases of loss. Private mortgage insurance may be called "lender's mortgage insurance" (LMI) if the premium on a PMI policy is paid by the lender and not the borrower. This is typically done in exchange for a higher rate or fee structure on the mortgage itself.
Mortgage Par Rate : An interest rate used as the reference point for which a mortgage lender will neither pay a rebate (yield spread premium or negative points) or require discount points for a mortgage. Also, an interest rate used as a reference point for which a mortgage lender will pay another lender par value (100% of the principal balance of a mortgage) for an existing mortgage. The lender will pay a premium for mortgages with interest rates above their par rate, and a discount for mortgages with interest rates below their par rate.
Mortgage Rate : The rate of interest charged on a mortgage. Mortgage rates are determined by the lender in most cases, and can be either fixed (stay the same for the term of the mortgage) or variable (fluctuate with a benchmark interest rate). Mortgage rates rise and fall with interest rates and can drastically affect the homebuyers' market.
Mortgagee : An entity that lends money to a borrower for the purpose of purchasing a piece of real property. By accepting a mortgage on the real property, the lender creates security in the full repayment of the loan in the future.
Mortgagor : An individual or company who borrows money to purchase a piece of real property. By granting the lender an interest in the property, which allows it to lend the funds with an accurate assessment of risk, the mortgagor provides the lender with a guarantee for the full repayment of the loan. Also known as a "chargor".
Multi-family house : Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit.
JARGONS : N
Notary : Also called a "notary public," this state-appointed official witnesses important document signings and verifies the identities of the signers to help deter fraud and identity theft. A notarized document will contain the seal and signature of the notary who witnessed the signing and will have more legal weight than a document that is not notarized. Document signings where consumers are likely to need the services of a notary include real estate deeds, affidavits, wills, trusts and powers of attorney.
JARGONS : O
Occupancy Rate : In real estate, the number of units in a building that have been rented out as compared to the total number of units in the building. An apartment building containing 20 units, 18 of which had renters, would have a 90% occupancy rate. A 200-room hotel with 150 rooms occupied would have a 75% occupancy rate. Conversely, the vacancy rate is the number of units in a building that are not rented out as compared to the total number of units in the building.
Open Car Park :
Open House : A scheduled period of time in which a house or other dwelling is designated to be open for viewing for potential buyers. Open house can also refer to the real estate property itself. In either case, it applies to dwellings that are for sale by the owner. Open houses will often be held to advertise a newly developed community.
Outside Broker : 1. A real estate salesperson and deal facilitator who works for a competing real estate company. 2. A securities broker who does not belong to a major exchange or who deals mainly in securities that aren't traded on exchanges.
Owner-Occupant : A resident of a property who also holds the title to that property. In contrast, an absentee owner holds title to the property but does not live there. A landlord is a type of absentee owner.
JARGONS : P
Paydown Factor : The portion of cash subtracted each month from the principal of a mortgage security divided by the original principal of the security.
Payment Option ARM : A monthly adjusting adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) which allows the borrower to choose between several monthly payment options: a 30 or 40-year fully amortizing payment, a 15-year fully amortizing payment, an interest-only payment, a minimum payment or any amount greater than the minimum payment. The minimum payment option is calculated based on an initial temporary start interest rate. While this temporary start interest rate is in effect, this is the only payment option available. It is a fully amortizing payment. After the temporary start interest rate expires, the minimum payment amount remains a monthly payment option; however, whenever a payment is made which is less than the scheduled interest-only payment, deferred interest is created.
Payment Option ARM Minimum Payment : An option to make minimum payments on an payment option ARM, which is a complex mortgage product with a temporary low interest rate. After the expiration of the temporary start rate, the borrower retains the option to make a payment equal to the initial payment established by the start rate: the minimum payment option. Unfortunately, there is a high probability that choosing this minimum payment will create negative amortization, where you owe more after making payments than you owed before you started paying the loan back.
Pent House :
Piggyback Mortgage : A type of mortgage where a second mortgage or home equity loan is taken out by a borrower at the same time the first mortgage is started or refinanced. Piggyback mortgages are frequently used to lower the loan-to-value ratio (LTV) of a first position mortgage to under 80%, thereby eliminating the need for private mortgage insurance (PMI).
Plottage : A real estate term referring to the process of combining adjacent parcels of land to form one larger parcel. Typically the value of the whole parcel will be greater than the sum of the individual smaller parcels. Also called assemblage.
Preferential Location Charges -PLC :
Pre-Foreclosure The status of a property which is in the early stages of being repossessed due to the property owner's inability to pay an outstanding mortgage obligation. Reaching pre-foreclosure status begins when the lender files a default notice on the property, which informs the property owner that the lender will proceed with pursuing legal action if the debt is not taken care of. At this point, the property owner has the opportunity to pay off the outstanding debt or sell the property before it is foreclosed.
Prepaid Interest : The interest that a debtor pays before the first scheduled debt repayment. For taxation purposes, most kinds of prepaid interest are expensed over the life of the loan. For mortgage loans, prepaid interest can also be the interim interest that accrues from the settlement day to the beginning of the first mortgage period.
Pre-paid Property Insurance : paid by the buyer but may be reimbursed by the seller. Lenders will typically require that a mortgaged property be insured at all times throughout the life of the mortgage, and will usually require that the first full year's property insurance premium be paid in advance by the buyer. If the buyer has not already paid the insurance company directly, this would become another closing cost payable at closing.
Prime : A classification of borrowers, rates or holdings in the lending market that are considered to be of high quality. This classification is placed on those borrowers that are deemed to be the most credit-worthy and the prime rate is the rate that a lender will lend to its high quality borrowers.
Promoter : An individual or company that, for a fee, helps raise money for some type of investment activity. Most often, promoters raise money for a company through offering investment vehicles other than traditional stocks and bonds, such as limited partnerships and direct investment activities. Often times, these promoters are paid in company stock or free entrance into the investment activity as compensation for their work in raising funds from others.
Property : 1. Anything over which a person or business has legal title. Property may be tangible or intangible, but it is owned by an entity and is therefore considered an asset or a liability attributable to that entity. 2. An employee who is under contract because he or she has something - skills, talents, etc. - of such value that a business may not be able to function without his or her services. 3. Another way of saying real property, real estate or land.
Property Management : The administration of residential, commercial and/or industrial real estate. Property management typically involves the managing of property that is owned by another party or entity. The property manager acts on behalf of the owner to preserve the value of the property while generating income. Managed properties include residential and vacation properties, commercial retail space or industrial warehouse space. Property managers are typically paid a fee and/or a percentage of the rent brought in for the property while under management.
Property Manager : An individual or company responsible for the day-to-day functioning of a piece of real estate. Property owners typically hire property managers when they are unwilling or unable to manage the properties themselves, perhaps because they live out of town, don't have the time or don't wish to be hands-on about the investment. Property managers typically are not required to have any particular educational background or credentials, though knowledge of the property market is a strong asset. In addition to receiving a salary or hourly wage, property managers may receive free or discounted rent if they are living in a building they are managing.
Property Tax : A tax assessed on real estate by the local government. The tax is usually based on the value of the property (including the land) you own.
Pro-rata property taxes : paid by the seller, the buyer, or both. Most (but not all) jurisdictions assess taxes on real property, which are usually payable at a specified date annually. Since all but a tiny fraction of real estate transactions close on a date other than this one specified annual date, most transactions must include an adjustment to assure that both the seller and the buyer end up paying their share of the annual property tax, proportionate to the percentage of the year that each has ownership of the property. Usually required by institutional/commercial lenders and by the real estate contract.
JARGONS : R
Real Estate Agent : A person with a state/provincial license to represent a buyer or a seller in a real estate transaction in exchange for commission. Most agents work for a real estate broker or realtor.
Real Estate Investment Group : An organization that builds or buys a group of properties and then sells them to investors as rental properties. In exchange for finding tenants, handling maintenance and other responsibilities, the organization receives a portion of the investors' monthly rent proceeds.
Realtor : The term "realtor" is a registered trademark and encompasses agents, brokers and associates who are members of a real-estate firm.
Reassessment : The process of re-determining the value of property or land for tax purposes.
Recording Fees : paid by either party, charged by a governmental entity for entering an official record of the change of ownership of the property. Required by the government for recording the deed.
Register Of Deeds : A record of real estate deeds or other land titles that is maintained by a local government official. The register of deeds will be used in conjunction with a grantor-grantee index that lists the owner of record and any transfers of property.
Rent Ceiling : A maximum price a landlord is allowed to charge for rent. Rent ceilings are usually set by law and limit how high the rent can go in a specified area. However, as a result of this regulation, the quantity of available housing is often decreased because landlords are not willing to rent out their property for a low price.
Right Of Foreclosure : A lender's ability to take possession of the property used to secure the loan it provided if the borrower stops making payments. Homeowners associations also have a right of foreclosure, which they can exercise if a homeowner fails to pay homeowners association fees and/or special assessments.
Right Of Redemption : The legal right of any mortgagor or borrower who owns real estate to reclaim his or her property. Right of redemption gives property owners who pay off the back taxes or liens on their property the ability to prevent foreclosure or the auctioning off of their property, sometimes even after the auction or sale has occurred. However, the amount paid generally also must include the costs incurred in the foreclosure process, plus the entire amount of the mortgage if the payoff comes after foreclosure or auction.
Rollover Mortgage : A mortgage in which the unpaid balance (outstanding principal) must be refinanced every few years (often three to five) at current interest rates, subject to certain limits. For example, the mortgage interest rate may not increase by more than 0.5% per year or by more than 5.0% over the life of the loan. The life of a rollover mortgage is commonly 30 years.
Row House :
JARGONS : S
Sale Agreement :
Sales And Purchase Agreement - SPA : A legal contract that obligates a buyer to buy and a seller to sell a product or service. SPAs are found in all types of businesses but are most often associated with real estate deals as a way of finalizing the interests of both parties before closing the deal.
Security Deposit : A monetary deposit given to a lender, seller or landlord as proof of intent. Security deposits can be either refundable or nonrefundable, depending on the terms of the transaction. As the name implies, the deposit is intended as a measure of security for the recipient.
Service Tax :
Sq. Meter : A unit for measuring land. 1 Sq.M. = 10.764 Sq.ft.
Sq. Yards : A unit for measuring land.1 Sq.Yrd. = 0.836 Sq.M.
Square Feet : A unit for measuring land. 1 Sq.ft. = 0.093 Sq.M.
Squatter : A person who settles in or occupies property with no legal claim to the property. A squatter is one who resides on a property to which he or she has no title, right or lease. A squatter may gain adverse possession of the property through involuntary transfer. A property owner who does not use or inspect his or her property for a number of years could lose title to another person who makes a claim to the land, takes possession of the land and uses the land.
Stamp Paper :
Subcontracting : The practice of assigning part of the obligations and tasks under a contract to another party known as a subcontractor. Subcontracting is especially prevalent in areas where complex projects are the norm, such as construction and information technology. Subcontractors are hired by the project's general contractor, who continues to have overall responsibility for project completion and execution within its stipulated parameters and deadlines.
Subprime : A classification of borrowers with a tarnished or limited credit history. Lenders will use a credit scoring system to determine which loans a borrower may qualify for. Subprime loans carry more credit risk, and as such, will carry higher interest rates as well. Approximately 25% of mortgage originations are classified as subprime.
Subprime Lender : A type of lender that specializes in lending to borrowers with a tainted or limited credit history. Subprime lending is more concentrated in a smaller number of large lenders than prime lending. The subprime loan market is more tiered compared to the prime loan market, where terms and rates vary little between borrowers.
Subprime Mortgage : A type of mortgage that is normally made out to borrowers with lower credit ratings. As a result of the borrower's lowered credit rating, a conventional mortgage is not offered because the lender views the borrower as having a larger-than-average risk of defaulting on the loan. Lending institutions often charge interest on subprime mortgages at a rate that is higher than a conventional mortgage in order to compensate themselves for carrying more risk.
Super Built Area :
Super built up / Saleable area : Built up area + markup for common spaces like lifts and stairs.Usually 25% more than the built up area.
Survey Fee : for a survey of the lot or land and all structures on it, paid by either party, to confirm lot size and dimensions and check for encroachments. Required by institutional/commercial lenders.
Swimming pool :
JARGONS : T
Teaser Loan : An adjustable-rate mortgage loan in which the borrower pays a very low initial interest rate, which increases after a few years. Teaser loans try to entice borrowers by offering an artificially low rate and small down payments, claiming that borrowers should be able to refinance before the increases occur.
Teaser Rate : An initial rate on an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM). This rate will typically be below the going market rate, and is used by lenders to entice borrowers to choose ARMs over traditional mortgages. The teaser rate will be in effect for only a few months, at which point the rate will gradually climb until it reaches the full indexed rate, which will be a static margin rate plus the floating rate index to which the mortgage is tied
Tenement : A housing structure that has several houses or units put together, often called an apartment. The word "tenement" was used most frequently many years ago to reference housing usually inhabited by lower income families. These buildings are simple rental properties that are more practical for those unable to afford a house or for those who would like to live in an area, such as city centers, where there are no houses to purchase.
Terraced house : A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space.
Thrift : Thrifts are savings and loans associations. Thrifts also refer to credit unions and mutual savings banks that provide a variety saving and loans services. There are two basic thrift savings and loans: a general purpose loan which requires repayment within five years and a residential loan which must be repayed within 15 years.
Time Sharing : A hybrid form of ownership. A time share is the right to occupy a unit of real estate property, such as a condominium or vacation home, during a specified number of separate time periods. Each time period is for a certain duration, such as one or two weeks. Time-sharing allows multiple purchasers to buy interests in the same real estate.
Timeshare : An ownership model whereby many customers own allotments of usage in the same property. The timeshare model can be applied to many different types of properties such as condominiums, homes, campgrounds, recreational vehicles and private jets.
Title : The right to the ownership and possession of any item that may be legally recognized as belonging to someone or something. In its most basic sense, title is the recognition of ownership. There are three components to the concept of title; possession or occupation, the right of possession and apparent ownership.
Title Insurance : Insurance that covers the loss of an interest in a property due to legal defects and that is required if the property is under mortgage. Most title insurance is lender's title insurance, which is paid for by the borrower but protects only the lender. Owner's title insurance is a separate policy; in some areas it is paid for by the seller to protect the buyer's equity in the property.
Title Service Cost(s) : paid by either party according to the contract but by default seller may pay the majority, for title search, title insurance, and possibly other title services. In some cases the attorney may do the title search or the title service and attorney fees may be combined. Required by institutional/commercial lenders and often by the real estate contract.
Transfer of Mortgage : A transaction where either the borrower or lender assigns an existing mortgage (bank loan to purchase a residential property) from the current holder to another person or entity. Homeowners who are unable to keep current on their mortgage payments may seek a transfer so that they don't default and go into foreclosure. Not all mortgages are eligible for transfer. In order to transfer a mortgage, the lender will need to verify that the person or entity that will assume the mortgage has adequate income and credit history to be able to make payments in a timely manner.
Triple Net Lease : A lease agreement that designates the lessee (the tenant) as being solely responsible for all of the costs relating to the asset being leased in addition to the rent fee applied under the lease. The structure of this type of lease requires the lessee to pay for net real estate taxes on the leased asset, net building insurance and net common area maintenance. The lessee has to pay the net amount of three types of costs, which how this term got its name. This type of lease can also be referred to as a "net-net-net lease" or a "hell or high water lease".
Trust Deed : 1. A formal document which outlines the terms of a trust agreement. 2. A common way to structure real estate purchases, where the title to a property is held in trust until the loan for the property is paid.
Two-Step Mortgage : A mortgage that offers an initial fixed-interest rate for a period of time (usually 5 or 7 years) after which, at a predetermined date, the interest rate adjusts according to current market rates. At the adjustment date, the borrower might have the option of choosing between a fixed-interest rate (based on current market rates) for the remaining term of the mortgage, or a variable interest rate structure for the remaining term of the mortgage.
JARGONS : U
Underwater Mortgage : A home purchase loan with a higher balance than the free-market value of the home. This situation prevents the homeowner from selling the home unless s/he has cash to pay the loss out of pocket. It also prevents the homeowner from refinancing in most cases. Thus, if the homeowner wants to sell the home because s/he ca' t afford the mortgage payments anymore, perhaps because of a job loss, the home will fall into foreclosure unless the borrower is able to renegotiate the loan.
Undivided share of common area :
Unrecorded Deed : A deed for a tangible piece of property that is not filed with the appropriate governing body. The deed will transfer ownership of the property from one party to another. The seller of the deed is known as the grantor, and the recipient of the deed is known as the grantee.
Up-Front Mortgage Insurance - UFMI : An insurance premium that is collected at the time the loan is initially made.
Usufruct : A legal term describing a situation wherein a person or company has a temporary right to use and derive income from someone else's property (provided that it isn't damaged).
JARGONS : V
Vacancy Rate : The vacancy rate is a numerical value calculated as the percentage of all available units in a rental property, such as a hotel or apartment complex, that are vacant or unoccupied at a particular time. It is the opposite of the occupancy rate, which is a calculation based on the percentage of units in a rental property that are occupied.
Vacation Home : A home separate from an individual's primary residence that is used for recreational purposes and may also be rented out at unused times.
Vendor Take-Back Mortgage : A type of mortgage in which the seller offers to lend funds to the buyer to help facilitate the purchase of the property. The take-back mortgage often represents a secondary lien on the property, as most buyers will have a primary source of funding other than the seller.
JARGONS : W
Warehouse Lending : A line of credit extended by a financial institution to a loan originator to fund a mortgage that a borrower initially used to buy a property. The loan typically lasts from the time it is originated to when the loan is sold into the secondary market, whether directly or through a securitization.
Weekly Mortgage Applications Survey : A survey established to provide current information regarding real estate market financing. The Weekly Mortgage Applications Survey contains statistical information on the previous week's mortgage activity. The website is used by real estate investors and anlaysts to assist them to keep up-to-date on market trends and help them make decisions on the purchase, or sale, of invesment property.
Workout Assumption : The assumption of an existing mortgage by a qualified, third-party borrower from a financially distressed borrower. By having someone else assume the mortgage, the financially distressed borrower is relieved of its obligation of repaying the mortgage. The assumption must be approved by the mortgagee.
Wrap-Around Loan : A loan that is most commonly used with property with an outstanding loan. The seller lends the buyer the difference between the existing loan and the purchase price. The buyer's periodic loan payments are sufficient to repay the existing loan as well as the seller's loan to the buyer. When the loan involves mortgage loans, it is also referred to as a wrap-around mortgage.
Wraparound Mortgage : A type of loan that enables a borrower who is paying off an existing mortgage to obtain more financing from a second lender or seller. The new lender (typically a bank or the seller of the real property) assumes the payment of the existing mortgage and provides the borrower with a new, larger loan, usually at a higher interest rate. A wraparound mortgage is also known as a wraparound loan, overriding mortgage, or all-inclusive mortgage.
JARGONS : Y
Yield Spread Premium : A form of compensation that a mortgage broker, acting as the intermediary, receives from the original lender for selling an interest rate to a borrower that is above the lender's par rate for which the borrower qualifies. The yield spread premium must be disclosed on the HUD-1 Form when the loan is closed.
Zero Capital Gains Rate : The capital gains tax rate of 0% that is charged to individuals who sell property in an "enterprise zone". The zero capital gains rate can be applied by a given level of government in order to prompt investment in a given area.
JARGONS : Z
Zero-Coupon Mortgage : A form of commercial financing in which regular interest and principal payments are deferred until maturity, rather than paid over the course of the loan. While the coupon rate on such a mortgage is technically zero because there are no regular coupon or interest payments, interest accrues and is rolled into the principal amount at maturity.
Zero-Lot-Line House : A piece of residential real estate in which the structure comes up to or very near to the edge of the property line. Zero-lot-line house are built very close to the property line in order to create more usable space. Rowhouses, garden homes, patio homes and townhomes are all types of properties that may be zero-lot-line homes. They may be attached (as in a townhome) or detached, single story or multistory.
Zoning : Government (usually municipal) laws that control the use of land within a jurisdiction.
Zoning Ordinance : Written regulations and laws that define how property in specific geographic zones can be used. Zoning ordinances specify whether zones can be used for residential or commercial purposes, and may also regulate lot size, placement, bulk (or density) and the height of structures. Zoning ordinances are lengthy documents describing not only the acceptable use for specified areas of land, but also the procedures for handling infractions (including any penalties), granting variances and hearing appeals.